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This is a great question. I'll speak to the EnergyPlus side since that is the basis behind OpenStudio anyway.

Most simulations in EnergyPlus assume a well-mixed zone. This assumes that the entire air volume in a space can be represented by a single thermodynamic state, so the air near the wall is the same as the air in the middle of the room. In this case, no, a spatial temperature distribution is neither calculated, nor available for report. However, there are specialized room air models available that allow for stratified, or non-uniform, air temperature distribution in the space. Look up the options available in the docs here to learn about the differences. Each model allows different calculation capability, and thus different report variables, to allow output of temperatures at different locations within a space.